Shipping 101

When shipping your commodity by land, there are 4 basic options to choose from:
  • LTL - Lighter Than Truckload 
  • FTL - Full Truckload 
  • Reefer - Refrigerated

Less Than Truckload 

LTL is the transportation of relatively smaller quantities of freight, and is usually moved on a pallet, and may be several pallets via one of the common carriers that are seen across the highways of North. As the name implies, these shipments usually consist of several pallets, pieces or cartons and almost all LTL common carriers are also more likely to accept loose (non-palletized) cargo than the traditional carriers. LTL shipments typically weigh between 151 and 20,000 lb (68 and 9,072 kg).
While routes tend to be more casual, the main advantage to using an LTL carrier is that a shipment may be transported for a fraction of the cost of hiring an entire truck and trailer for an exclusive shipment. Also, a number of accessory services are available from LTL carriers, which are not typically offered by FTL carriers. These optional services include liftgate service at pickup or delivery, residential (also known as "non-commercial") service at pickup or delivery, inside delivery, notification prior to delivery, freeze protection, and several others.


TL is the transportation of larger amounts of cargo, generally the amount necessary to fill an entire semi-trailer, open deck trailer (like a flatbed or stepdeck) or into an enclosed sea or rail container. A truckload carrier is a trucking company that generally contracts an entire trailer-load to a single customer. This is as opposed to a less-than truckload (LTL) company that generally mixes freight from several customers in each trailer. One advantage Full Truckload (FTL) carriers have over Less than Truckload carriers is that the freight is never trans-loaded en route, whereas an LTL shipment will typically be –loaded multiple times as it moves from origin to destination. Truckload shipments also should also be packaged, loaded, blocked or braced, A typical full truckload for a dry van trailer consists of 26 standard pallets of cargo that weighs up to 44,000 lbs., although many carriers will not carry loads that are maxed out.  Open deck freight usually has  maximum weight limit of 48,000 lbs.

Reefer - Refrigerated Trucks

A refrigerated container or reefer is an intermodal container (shipping container) used in intermodal freight transport that is refrigerated for the transportation of temperature sensitive cargo. While a reefer will have an integral refrigeration unit, they rely on external power, from electrical power points (“reefer points”) at a land based site, a container ship or on quay. When being transported over the road on a trailer or via rail, they can be powered from diesel powered generators ("gen sets") which attach to the container whilst on road journeys. Refrigerated containers are capable of controlling temperature ranging from -30C, -40C, -65C up to 30C, 40C.

The impact on society of reefer containers is vast, allowing consumers all over the world to enjoy fresh produce at any time of year and experience previously unavailable fresh produce from many other parts of the world.

When shipping your commodity by land, there are 4 basic options to choose from: LTL - Lighter Than Truckload  FTL - Full Truckload  Re...

LTL Partners

Central to the idea of moving freight with confidence, we are teaming up with initiatives and organizations that are strengthening our global entrepreneurial infrastructure. Check out some of our LTL partners leading the charge with innovation, efficiency and technology.

Central to the idea of moving freight with confidence, we are teaming up with initiatives and organizations that are strengthening our globa...

Customs Codes

This page contains the chapter-by-chapter listing of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule and general notes.  The links below correspond to the various sections in the Table of Contents for the Harmonized Tariff Schedule.  Clicking on a link will load the corresponding Adobe .pdf file

(Note: Section notes, if any, are attached to the first chapter of each section. "Page down" to view chapter after selecting.)

Section I:Live Animals; Animal Products
Chapter 1Live animals
Chapter 2Meat and edible meat offal
Chapter 3Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates
Chapter 4Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included
Chapter 5Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 
Section II:Vegetable Products
Chapter 6Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage
Chapter 7Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers
Chapter 8Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons
Chapter 9Coffee, tea, maté and spices
Chapter 10Cereals
Chapter 11Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten
Chapter 12Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder
Chapter 13Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts
Chapter 14Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 
Section III:Animal or Vegetable Fats and Oils and Their Cleavage Products; Prepared Edible Fats; Animal or Vegetable Waxes
Chapter 15Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes
Section IV:Prepared Foodstuffs; Beverages, Spirits, and Vinegar; Tobacco and Manufactured Tobacco Substitutes
Chapter 16Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates
Chapter 17Sugars and sugar confectionery
Chapter 18Cocoa and cocoa preparations
Chapter 19Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers' wares
Chapter 20Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants
Chapter 21Miscellaneous edible preparations
Chapter 22Beverages, spirits and vinegar
Chapter 23Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed
Chapter 24Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes
Section V:Mineral Products
Chapter 25
Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement
Chapter 26
Ores, slag and ash
Chapter 27
Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes
Section VI:Products of the Chemical or Allied Industries
Chapter 28Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorgani c compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes
Chapter 29Organic chemicals
Chapter 30Pharmaceutical products
Chapter 31Fertilizers
Chapter 32Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 
Chapter 33Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations
Chapter 34Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster
Chapter 35Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes
Chapter 36Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations
Chapter 37Photographic or cinematographic goods
Chapter 38Miscellaneous chemical products
Section VII:Plastics and Articles Thereof Rubber and Articles Thereof
Chapter 39Plastics and articles thereof
Chapter 40Rubber and articles thereof
Section VIII:Raw Hides and Skins, Leather, Furskins and Articles Thereof; Saddlery and Harness; Travel Goods, Handbags and Similar Containers; Articles of Animal Gut (Other Than Silkworm Gut)
Chapter 41Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather
Chapter 42Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut)
Chapter 43Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof
Section IX:Wood and Articles of Wood; Wood Charcoal; Cork and Articles of Cork; Manufacturers of Straw,of Esparto or of Other Plaiting Materials; Basketware and Wickerwork
Chapter 44Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal
Chapter 45Cork and articles of cork
Chapter 46Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork
Section X:Pulp of Wood or of Other Fibrous Cellulosic Material; Waste and Scrap of Paper or Paperboard; Paper and Paperboard and Articles Thereof
Chapter 47Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard
Chapter 48Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard
Chapter 49Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans
Section XI:Textile and Textile Articles
Chapter 50Silk
Chapter 51Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric
Chapter 52Cotton
Chapter 53Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn
Chapter 54Man-made filaments
Chapter 55Man-made staple fibers
Chapter 56Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof
Chapter 57Carpets and other textile floor coverings
Chapter 58Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery
Chapter 59Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use
Chapter 60Knitted or crocheted fabrics
Chapter 61Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted
Chapter 62Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted
Chapter 63Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags
Section XII:Footwear, Headgear, Umbrellas, Sun Umbrellas, Walking Sticks, Seatsticks, Whips, Riding-Crops and Parts Thereof; Prepared Feathers and Articles Made Therewith; Artificial Flowers; Articles of Human Hair
Chapter 64
Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles
Chapter 65
Headgear and parts thereof
Chapter 66
Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof
Chapter 67
Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair
Section XIII:Articles of Stone, Plaster, Cement, Asbestos, Mica or Similar Materials; Ceramic Products; Glass and Glassware
Chapter 68
Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials
Chapter 69
Ceramic products
Chapter 70
Glass and glassware
Section XIV:Natural or Cultured Pearls, Precious or Semiprecious Stones, Precious Metals, Metals Clad With Precious Metal, and Articles Thereof; Imitation Jewelry; Coin
Chapter 71Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin
Section XV:Base Metals and Articles of Base Metal
Chapter 72Iron and steel
Chapter 73Articles of iron or steel
Chapter 74Copper and articles thereof
Chapter 75Nickel and articles thereof
Chapter 76Aluminum and articles thereof
Chapter 77(Reserved for possible future use)
Chapter 78Lead and articles thereof
Chapter 79Zinc and articles thereof
Chapter 80Tin and articles thereof
Chapter 81Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof
Chapter 82Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal
Chapter 83Miscellaneous articles of base metal
Section XVI:Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Equipment; Parts Thereof; Sound Recorders and Reproducers, Television Image and Sound Recorders and Reproducers, and Parts and Accessories of Such Articles
Chapter 84Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof
Chapter 85Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles
Section XVII:Vehicles, Aircraft, Vessels and Associated Transport Equipment
Chapter 86Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds
Chapter 87Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof
Chapter 88Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof
Chapter 89Ships, boats and floating structures
Section XVIII:Optical, Photographic, Cinematographic, Measuring, Checking, Precision, Medical or Surgical Instruments and Apparatus; Clocks and Watches; Musical Instruments; Parts and Accessories Thereof
Chapter 90
Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof
Chapter 91
Clocks and watches and parts thereof
Chapter 92
Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles
Section XIXArms and Ammunition; Parts and Accessories Thereof
Chapter 93
Arms and ammunition; parts and accessories thereof
Section XX:Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles
Chapter 94
Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings
Chapter 95
Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof
Chapter 96
Miscellaneous manufactured articles
Section XXI:Works of Art, Collectors' Pieces and Antiques
Chapter 97
Works of art, collectors' pieces and antiques
Section XXII:Special Classification Provisions; Temporary Legislation; Temporary Modifications Proclaimed pursuant to Trade Agreements Legislation; Additional Import Restrictions Proclaimed Pursuant to Section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, As Amended
Chapter 98Special classification provisions
Chapter 99Temporary legislation; temporary modifications proclaimed pursuant to trade agreements legislation; additional import restrictions proclaimed pursuant to section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended

Annex A - Schedule C, Classification of Country and Territory Designations for U.S. Import Statistics
Annex B - International Standard Country Codes
Annex C - Schedule D, Customs District and Port Codes

This page contains the chapter-by-chapter listing of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule and general notes.  The links below correspond to ...